Adolf Hitlers Rise to Power – Photo Essays – TIME.Out of Obscurity CLICK LINK FOR SLIDESHOW.
After serving unremarkably in the First World War, the future dictator immersed himself in the German nationalist politics of Munich. In 1921, he claimed control of the German Workers Party and renamed it the National Socialist German Workers Party, and gave himself the title of Führer. In this 1922 photo, he poses with members of the group’s paramilitary organization, the Sturmabteilung, known by its initials, SA.
- Adolf Hitler exhibition in Germany: Hitler and the Germans at the German Historical Museum in Berlin (telegraph.co.uk)
- “A Walk Inside Berlin’s Controversial Hitler Museum (PHOTOS)” and related posts (huffingtonpost.com)
- The Making of Adolf Hitler (online.wsj.com)
Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust is a book well worth reading. I’ve read it and I think highly of the book.
I don’ t have time to write a review right now, but here’s the PW writeup:
Goldhagen’s gripping and shocking landmark study transforms our understanding of the Holocaust. Refuting the widespread notion that those who carried out the genocide of Jews were primarily SS men or Nazi party members, he demonstrates that the perpetrators?those who staffed and oversaw the concentration camps, slave labor camps, genocidal army units, police battalions, ghettos, death marches?were, for the most part, ordinary German men and women: merchants, civil servants, academics, farmers, students, managers, skilled and unskilled workers. Rejecting the conventional view that the killers were slavishly carrying out orders under coercion, Goldhagen, assistant professor of government at Harvard, uses hitherto untapped primary sources, including the testimonies of the perpetrators themselves, to show that they killed Jews willingly, approvingly, even zealously. Hitler’s genocidal program of a “Final Solution” found ready accomplices in these ordinary Germans who, as Goldhagen persuasively argues, had absorbed a virulent, “eliminationist” anti-Semitism, prevalent as far back as the 18th century, which demonized the Jews and called for their expulsion or physical annihilation. Furthermore, his research reveals that a large proportion of the killers were told by their commanders that they could disobey orders to kill, without fear of retribution?yet they slaughtered Jews anyway. By his careful estimate, hundreds of thousands of Germans were directly involved in the mass murder, and millions more knew of the ongoing genocide. Among the 30 photographs are snapshots taken by the murderers of themselves and their victims.
1I am a german and for me this sounds like it could have been that way. The nazi regime was very good at propaganda. It should be a warning for the civilized world that even a well educated first world country can be victim to a radical ideology. The time after world war I was of course a very hard time in germany and people are more likely to follow false prophets in such times.
Posted by: Arnd | September 17, 2010 3:11 AM
I wish you would cease calling these people Christians. Like
the creationists, Hitler’s willing followers were people who
perverted everything that Christianity stands for.
Posted by: William O. Romine Jr. | September 17, 2010 9:16 AM
I’m three-quarters German. I had relatives here in the US who went to German school, read German newspapers, sang German patriotic songs, and joined the Bund, remaining loyal to Germany even after the declaration of war. All those men went into the Army, serving in the Pacific Theater.
After the collapse of the Third Reich, many of them were still proud of Germany’s accomplishments during the war. It seems to be part of a cultural mindset that can be hard to fathom.
Posted by: 6EQUJ5 | September 17, 2010 9:28 AM
William, sorry, just being real. The anti-semitism of Europe was largely a Christian phenomenon, and it was going for a long time before the Nazi’s, who were nominally Christian and often more than nominally Christian, put a fine edge on it while the German Church sat by and watched or even participated. For me to ignore that would be dishonest. For you to ignore it would also be dishonest. As an Atheist, I can’t really find a way to be dishonest like that. As a Christian, perhaps you don’t find it so difficult. Just sayin’
- Hitler’s Willing (Christian) Executioners [Greg Laden’s Blog] (scienceblogs.com)
- Hitler’s (Christian) Pope [Greg Laden’s Blog] (scienceblogs.com)
- German Women’s Involvement In The Holocaust (oliverwillis.com)
- Death Marches and Extermination Camps (socyberty.com)
Savior of the Diaries
Anne Frank Helper Miep Gies Dies at 100
She never wanted special recognition for her heroism. In her memoir, Miep Gies wrote "there is nothing special about me."
The world, of course, has a different view of the one-time secretary, known the world over as the woman who hid Anne Frank and her family from the Nazis in wartime Amsterdam. And now, hundreds of thousands around the globe are mourning her death. Miep Gies passed away on Monday evening at the age of 100.
Herreports that she died following a brief illness, with her son, Paul Gies, adding that his mother spent her final days in a nursing home following a fall last month. Of the numerous people who helped the Frank family avoid deportation for two years from July 1942 to August 1944, Miep Gies was the last still alive.
Gies worked as a secretary for Anne Frank's father, Otto, who ran a spice business. As the Nazis began rounding up Holland's Jews in 1942, Otto asked her to hide his family — including his wife and his daughter Margot in addition to Anne — and four other Jews in an annex behind a warehouse on the Prinsengracht canal.
'Didn't Know Where to Turn'
"I answered, 'Yes, of course,'" Gies recalled years later. "It seemed perfectly natural to me. I could help these people. They were powerless, they didn't know where to turn."
Together with four other Frank employees, Gies provided food and other necessities to those living in the shelter. Gies biked across Amsterdam, procuring supplies at different shops in order to avoid raising suspicion about the quantity of food she was buying.
Despite the heroic efforts of Gies and the others, the Nazis raided the secret annex on the morning of Aug. 4, 1944 and deported its residents to Auschwitz. Anne Frank, spared immediate death in the Auschwitz gas chambers, died of typhus in the Bergen-Belsen camp just weeks before the end of World War II. She was 15.
It was Miep Gies who saved Anne Frank's notebooks from the annex shortly after her arrest and locked them in a drawer. She didn't read the documents, planning to return them to Anne following the war. In the end, however, she handed the diaries to Otto — the only member of the Frank family to survive the war — upon his return and he published them in 1947. "The Diary of Anne Frank" has since been read by millions of people around the world and translated into 65 languages.
'Never a Day Goes By'
Miep Gies was born in 1909 in Vienna as Hermine Santrouschitz before moving to Amsterdam in the early 1920s due to food shortages in post-World War I Austria. She married her boyfriend Jan Gies, thus avoiding deportation after having refused to join a Nazi organization in 1941. Gies spent much of her later life answering letters about the Anne Frank diaries and countering Holocaust deniers who claimed that the diaries were forgeries. "Never a day goes by that I do not think of what happened then," she wrote on her Web site.
Gies received numerous awards and acknowledgements throughout her life, including the "Righteous Gentile" designation handed out by the Israeli Holocaust museum Yad Vashem. The German government awarded her the prestigious Bundesverdienstkreuz 1. Klasse (Cross of Merit, First Class). Still, the ever-modest Mies constantly reminded her admirers that she was just one of many who helped hide Jews in Holland.
"More than 20,000 Dutch people helped to hide Jews and others in need of hiding during those years," she wrote. "I willingly did what I could to help. My husband did as well. It was not enough."