History of Medicine: The former Chairman of Bayer, maker of childrens aspirin, was found guilty of Nazi war crimes and sentenced to prison
I.G. Farben was a powerful cartel comprised of Bayer, BASF, Hoechst, and other German chemical companies which experimented mercilessly on Jewish prisoners as Hitler commanded, inside the World War II Auschwitz Concentration Camp, testing dangerous drugs and vaccines and killing thousands. In fact, Auschwitz was the largest mass extermination factory in human history (http://www.nizkor.org/faqs/auschwitz/auschwitz-faq-06.html).
Ironically, just two weeks after Germany’s unconditional surrender, the designer of the Nazi guided missile, Herbert Wagner, arrived in Washington D.C. This was the beginning of the mass influx of “mad scientists” who would go to work in the United States for a mission called “Project Paperclip,” headed up by President Roosevelt to supposedly “exploit the knowledge of Nazi scientists.”
A few years later, the Nuremberg War Criminal Tribunal convicted 24 of the I.G. Farben executives for mass murder, slavery and other crimes against humanity; however, in less than 7 years, every single murderer was released, and began consulting American corporations. From 1950 to 1980, Bayer, BASF, and Hoechst filled their highest position, Chairman of the Board, with convicted mass murderers.
Here’s my workout schedule. I thought you would like to see what I do and if you’re looking for ideas you could try my workout.
Monday – 30 mins of Circuit Training, 30 mins of Cardio, 2 ab workouts 2 sets, 12-15 reps
Tuesday – 1 hour of Kickboxing
Wednesday – 30 mins of Cardio + 3 ab workout machines 2 sets, 12-15 reps
Thursday – 30-1 hour of Pilates and Yoga from Fit2BeUs
Friday – Strength Training- 2 sets, 12 reps
Lat Pull down
Saturday – 30-1 hour of Pilates and Yoga from Fit2BeUs
Sunday- possibly 1 1/2 hours at Hot Yoga Therapy
2 random days – walk 30 mins
Today we mourn the passing of a beloved old friend, Common Sense, who has been with us for many years. No one knows for sure how old he was, since his birth records were long ago lost in bureaucratic red tape. He will be remembered as having cultivated such valuable lessons as:
– Knowing when to come in out of the rain;
– Why the early bird gets the worm;
– Life isn’t always fair;
– and Maybe it was my fault.
Common Sense lived by simple, sound financial policies (don’t spend more than you can earn) and reliable strategies (adults, not children, are in charge).
His health began to deteriorate rapidly when well-intentioned but overbearing regulations were set in place. Reports of a 6-year-old boy charged with sexual harassment for kissing a classmate; teens suspended from school for using mouthwash after lunch; and a teacher fired for reprimanding an unruly student, only worsened his condition.
Common Sense lost ground when parents attacked teachers for doing the job that they themselves had failed to do in disciplining their unruly children.
It declined even further when schools were required to get parental consent to administer sun lotion or an aspirin to a student; but could not inform parents when a student became pregnant and wanted to have an abortion.
Common Sense lost the will to live as the churches became businesses; and criminals received better treatment than their victims.
Common Sense took a beating when you couldn’t defend yourself from a burglar in your own home and the burglar could sue you for assault.
Common Sense finally gave up the will to live, after a woman failed to realize that a steaming cup of coffee was hot. She spilled a little in her lap, and was promptly awarded a huge settlement.
Common Sense was preceded in death, by his parents, Truth and Trust, by his wife, Discretion, by his daughter, Responsibility, and by his son, Reason.
Believe it or not, sunglasses are not a modern invention. Many centuries ago, Inuit people wore shades made of walrus ivory with thin slits in them to protect their eyes from the glare of the snow. And the Roman emperor Nero and Chinese judges wore gemstone lenses of smoky quartz to prevent eye contact.
Nowadays, sunglasses are as much a fashion accessory as an eyesight aid and have a wide range of uses, from sports sunglasses to darkened lenses to aid those with a sensitivity to bright lights.
The first sunglasses
Spending all their days under the blazing sun that was reflected off the acres of snow before them, the Inuit people used primitive sunglasses to protect their eyes from the bright light. This helped them when hunting and ensure they did not suffer from snow-blindness, something that can still cause problems for those enjoying winter sports.
In ancient China and Rome, members of the aristocracy and judges would wear sunglasses of polished gems to hide their expression and the first painting of a person wearing shades dates back to 1352.
These early sunglasses could only protect the eyes and the first prescription shades were developed in Italy in 1430. By the 1600s the benefits of sunglasses were widely recognised and in the 18th century James Ayscough began to experiment further with tinted lenses. He believed blue or green lenses could help to correct vision and by the 20th century sunglasses were common as a way to protect the eyes as well as being worn as a fashion statement. In the states they were then commonly known as “Sun Cheaters” and sunglasses were used a lot, not so much for the benefits of eye protection but to mask the identities of celebrities and give them some anonymity in the public domain.
Uses for sunglasses
As medical science advanced and optometrists further understood the dangers of bright light, sunglasses became vital for many people involved in all sorts of activities.
Just as the Inuit people protected their eyes from the snow with ivory shades, modern sports sunglasses perform the same task. Those who participate in winter sports should always wear sports sunglasses to ensure they do not suffer from snow-blindness when on the piste.
Players of all other outdoor sports and pastimes will also benefit from wearing sunglasses and prescription sunglasses can correct vision at the same time, meaning sports sunglasses are available to all.
Types of sports sunglasses
Far from the basic blocking of light, modern sports sunglasses feature a special coating to give UV protection and come in many different lens colours. Smoke or grey lenses are a great all-round choice, brown or amber lenses are particularly good for water sports, fishing and hunting, while blue lenses are ideal for people with sensitive eyes. Polarised and mirror lenses are great for sports where glare can be problematic.
The colour of the lens can affect sight and should be taken into consideration, with brown tints increasing contrast but causing some distortion, orange and yellow lenses boosting depth perception and blue shades the best for not distorting colours.
Sports sunglasses can offer UV protection to European standards and tough frames to ensure they won’t break in even the most demanding environments. The lenses should be shatterproof and a strap may be necessary for more active sports. Sunglasses for water sports are also specially adapted to float should they come off and have a vent to prevent fogging.
Benefits of sunglasses
As well as enabling better vision, modern sunglasses can protect the eyes in many other ways. Excessive exposure to light can damage the eyes and the ultraviolet radiation from the sun can cause conditions such as cataracts or even cancer.
Experts advise wearing sunglasses that can block out 99-100% of UVA and UVB light, with wavelengths up to 400nm. Shades that meet this requirement are labeled UV 400 and go above and beyond what it required of the European Union standards.
Having already come a long way, the development of sunglasses continues. Nasa developed incredibly high-tech sunglasses using polarised lenses and gold coatings in strong but comfortable frames to protect the eyes of astronauts and there are shades available back on earth with built-in headphones and music players
Phineas Gage and the effect on personality of an iron bar through the head | Science | guardian.co.uk
Phineas Gage and the effect on personality of an iron bar through the head | Science | guardian.co.uk.
Gage is said to have travelled New England making public appearances with his tamping iron, to which he had become curiously attached. Click to enlarge
The photograph above, which was uncovered earlier this year, is one of only two known images of an otherwise unremarkable man named Phineas Gage who attained near-legendary status in the history ofneuroscience and psychology one fateful day in 1848 at the age of 25.
Gage earned his place in the neurological hall of fame in a most unusual – and extremely unfortunate – way. A railroad construction foreman in the US, he was in charge of a crew of men who were working on the construction of the Rutland and Burlington Railroad near Cavendish, Vermont. On 18 September, he and his crew were excavating rocks to make way for the railroad. Gage was preparing for an explosion, using the tamping iron he holds in the photograph to compact explosive charge in a borehole. As he was doing so, the iron produced a spark that ignited the powder, and the resulting blast propelled the tamping iron straight through his head.
- Phineas Gage and the effect of an iron bar through the head on personality (guardian.co.uk)
- The Odd Case of Phineas Gage (bigthink.com)
But the old apothecaries were more cautious with nutmeg than with other spices. The Salerno School decreed: “One nut is good for you, the second will do you harm, the third will kill you.” That isn’t strictly true but in large doses nutmeg can be intoxicating. Its oil contains myristicin: in large doses this acts as a deliriant, while causing palpitations, convulsions, nausea, dehydration and pain. It is fatal to a number of animals, including dogs.
The Dutch, who had time to get to know nutmeg, add it to most of their vegetable dishes. It is also popular in Quebec. The spice is popular in historical spheres of Moorish influence but not, oddly, in India.
In England, nutmegs are essential to the spiced foods of Christmas, to custard tarts and to the mealy, stodgy brood of national puddings. It has an affinity with cinnamon and can often take its place. It is lovely in mashed potato.
Of course, the spice is almost universally available today. Jars on supermarket shelves don’t begin to hint at its past. But the story of food can sometimes be the story of humanity, and nowhere does that seem more true than in the case of nutmeg, the headiest, most alluring, most blood-soaked of the spices.
- What is Nutmeg? (brainz.org)