Phineas Gage and the effect on personality of an iron bar through the head | Science | guardian.co.uk
Phineas Gage and the effect on personality of an iron bar through the head | Science | guardian.co.uk.
Gage is said to have travelled New England making public appearances with his tamping iron, to which he had become curiously attached. Click to enlarge
The photograph above, which was uncovered earlier this year, is one of only two known images of an otherwise unremarkable man named Phineas Gage who attained near-legendary status in the history ofneuroscience and psychology one fateful day in 1848 at the age of 25.
Gage earned his place in the neurological hall of fame in a most unusual – and extremely unfortunate – way. A railroad construction foreman in the US, he was in charge of a crew of men who were working on the construction of the Rutland and Burlington Railroad near Cavendish, Vermont. On 18 September, he and his crew were excavating rocks to make way for the railroad. Gage was preparing for an explosion, using the tamping iron he holds in the photograph to compact explosive charge in a borehole. As he was doing so, the iron produced a spark that ignited the powder, and the resulting blast propelled the tamping iron straight through his head.
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Titanic survivors Laura Francatelli (standing, second right) and her employers, Lady Lucy Duff-Gordon (standing, third left) and Sir Cosmo Duff-Gordon (directly behind Lady Lucy), on the Carpathia, following their rescue from the sinking of the Titanic in 1912. (AP Photo/Henry Aldridge and Son)
Francatelli was a maid to Sir Cosmo and Lady Duff-Gordon. Her account tells of how she and her mistress refused to board a lifeboat unless Sir Cosmo joined them, which he at first refused until an officer insisted. She also wrote how she and Lady Duff-Gordon were the only women on deck at the time.
“We were dropped into this boat and lowered into the sea. Just as they were lowering the boat two American gentlemen came along the deck and got in also.
“The Officers gave orders to us to row away from ship.
“There were seven sailors in the boat Lady Duff Gordon myself Sir Cosmo and the two American gentlemen. Twelve in all.
“The boat was not a lifeboat but quite a small ordinary rowing boat and not too safe,” she continued.
“We kept on rowing and stopping and rowing again I heard some talk going on all about the suction if the ship went down. I do not know who joined in the conversation.
“We were a long way off when we saw the Titanic go right up at the back and plunge down. There was an awful rumbling when she went. The [sic] came the screams and cries. I do not know how long they lasted.
“We had hardly any talk. The men spoke about God and prayers and wives. We were all in the darkness. Mr. Hengle kept on shouting Boat ahoy! and some one said There was bound to be help soon. After the ship went down all seemed very quiet for a long while.
“Later on I heard the men speaking about losing their kits and Sir C. Duff Gordon said he would make it all right for them. Sir Cosmo told them not to worry about it. He would give them £5 each.”
Francatelli also wrote of warming the hands and feet of the men who were rowing the boat due to the freezing temperatures.
Following their rescue, stories circulated that Sir Duff-Gordon had bribed crewmembers to get a boat for himself, his wife and employee. Though cleared by an official inquiry, his reputation suffered. He died in 1931.
Lady Duff-Gordon, a noted fashion designer, died in 1935.
Francatelli later married hotelier Max Haering. She died in London in 1967.
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Jewish women and children from Subcarpathian Rus who have been selected for death at Auschwitz-Birkenau, walk toward the gas chambers. [Photograph #77303]
192 photos of nameless faces of people just like us.
Jewish women and children from Subcarpathian Rus who have been selected for death at Auschwitz-Birkenau, walk toward the gas chambers.
The “Auschwitz Album” is an album of photographs documenting the arrival, selection and processing of one or more transports of Jews from Subcarpathian Rus (Carpatho-Ukraine), then part of Hungary, that came to Auschwitz-Birkenau in the latter half of May, 1944. Many of these Jews were deported from Berehovo, where Jews from neighboring towns and villages were gathered at a brick factory. The album, which includes 193 photographs mounted on 56 pages, was taken by SS-Hauptscharführer Bernhardt Walter, head of the Auschwitz photographic laboratory known as the Erkennungsdienst [Identification Service] and his assistant, SS-Unterscharführer Ernst Hofmann. The album was produced as a presentation volume for the camp commandant. The photographs were arranged in the album by a prisoner named Myszkowski, who worked in the lab. He also decorated the volume and wrote captions for the pictures. The album was found after the liberation by Lili Jacob (later Zelmanovic, now Meier), herself an Auschwitz survivor who appears in one of the photographs. Lili came from Bilki, a town in Subcarpathian Rus that was annexed by Hungary in March, 1939. In the spring of 1944 her family was relocated to the ghetto in Berehovo. From there they were deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau on a transport that departed on May 24, 1944. Lili, who was eighteen years old when she arrived in the camp, was the only member of her family to survive Auschwitz. At war’s end Lili was sick with typhus in the infirmary of the Nordhausen concentration camp. After the liberation American soldiers moved her to a nearby former SS barrack, where she came across the album of Auschwitz photographs while searching for some clothing. She decided to keep the album and took it with her to Prague, where she lived temporarily after the war. Lili allowed the Prague Jewish community to copy the images and produce a set of glass negatives. A selection of these photographs were subsequently included in The Tragedy of Slovak Jews, published in Bratislava in 1949. In 1955 these negatives were rediscovered in a Prague museum by two Czech researchers who were also Auschwitz survivors. After authenticating these images at the Auschwitz Museum, two sets of prints were made which were deposited at the Auschwitz Museum and at Yad Vashem. At this time the identity of the owner of the original album was unknown. Lili Jacob had in the meantime immigrated to the United States. In 1961 at the time of the Eichmann trial, she gave an interview to Parade magazine in which she described the Auschwitz album she had found. When members of the Auschwitz Museum heard about the interview they contacted her and received the missing information. The negatives found by the Czech researchers were used in the pre-trial investigations for the Frankfurt Auschwitz trials of 1963-1965. When the existence of the original album was make known, Lili was brought to Frankfurt to testify. Among the 22 SS defendants was the head of the photography laboratory, Bernhardt Walter. The Auschwitz album, however, did not receive widespread attention until Nazi-hunter Serge Klarsfeld convinced Lili to donate it to Yad Vashem in 1980 and, at the same time, undertook to publish the volume. The first edition of The Auschwitz Album, which appeared in August 1980, was produced by the Klarsfeld Foundation. The following year, a version intended for a broader audience was published by Random House. In 1994 the original album underwent restoration at Yad Vashem, and in 1999 it was digitally scanned. Some of the original photographs are missing; it is thought that they may have been given away by Lili to other survivors.
[Sources: http://www.yadvashem.org/exhibitions/album_auschwitz (2000); Swiebocka, Teresa, Auschwitz A History in Photographs. The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum, 1993]
Date: May 1944
Locale: Auschwitz, [Upper Silesia] Poland; Birkenau; Auschwitz III; Monowitz; Auschwitz II
Photographer: Bernhardt Walter/Ernst Hofmann
Credit: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of Yad Vashem (Public Domain)
Copyright: Public Domain
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The U.S. Navy MZ-3A Airship is enroute to Gulf Coast and expected to arrive after July 5 at Jack Edwards National Airport in Gulf Shores, Ala. The airship was requested by the U.S. Coast Guard to support Deepwater Horizon Response operations of the Unified Area Command. The airship will be used to detect oil, direct skimming vessels, and look for wildlife that may be threatened by oil.